PACE has integrated the conception, modeling and simulation of artificial chemical cells and their subsystems as complex information systems. This includes the formulation of a roadmap and graphical classification language for artificial cells. Physical self-assembly of components to microscale structures provides a powerful mechanism of constructive information processing. A coherent simulation perspective at various scales is provided through a virtual lab site integrating experience with a variety of novel (and established) simulation tools, in the design of artificial cells. The conceptual significance of artificial cells for future ICT is surveyed in the separate chapter ICT implications.